Zygophyllaceae

Zygophyllaceae


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Zygophyllaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes around 285 species in 22 genera. They are divided into 5 subfamilies.

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Zygophyllaceae - garden

If you live in the South, then you may have met at least one member of the Caltrop family, the puncture vine, from the thorns pulled from your bicycle tires and shoes. Members of the Caltrop family have opposite, usually pinnately divided leaves. They are usually herbs or shrubs, but some are trees. The Caltrops are largely adapted to desert conditions they are rare in the northern latitudes. A typical flower from this family is regular and bisexual, with 5 separate sepals and 5 separate petals (rarely 4 of each), and either 5, 10 or 15 stamens. The ovary is positioned superior. It consists of 5 united carpels (syncarpous) with the partition walls present, forming an equal number of chambers. It matures as a capsule with 2 or more seeds per cell, or rarely as a drupe (a fleshy fruit with a stoney pit). Worldwide there are about 30 genera and 250 species.

Key Words: Desert plants with parts in fives, and opposite, usually pinnately divided leaves.

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Hallucinogenic Plants in the Mediterranean Countries

Ioannis D. Passos , Maria Mironidou-Tzouveleki , in Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse , 2016

Key Facts About Peganum harmala

Peganum harmala belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae , and it is often referred to as “Syrian rue,” “African rue,” or “Harmal.”

Peganum harmala contains β-carbolines such as harmaline, harmine, harmalol, harmol, tetrahydroharmine, and the quinazoline derivatives vasicinone and deoxyvasicinone.

Peganum harmala can be used with plants containing DMT for the production of the drink “Ayahuasca.”

Some of the actions of Peganum harmala are caused by the interaction of β-carbolines and MAO. The concomitant use of MAOI and tyramine-rich products can cause hypertensive crisis known as the “cheese effect.”


Zygophyllaceae - garden

rare plants - fragrant flowers - exotic fruit

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The Balanites tree is used locally for many products: the wood is used for making tools and furniture, the fruit for sweets and alcoholic beverages, and the kernels for cooking oil and medicines. The green fruit yields a powerful poison lethal to some fish, tadpoles and snails when placed in the water. The poison may occur in the in the kernel and pulp. It is harmless to people.


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Bulnesia arborea
Family: Zygophyllaceae
Vera, Verawood, Vera Wood, Maracaibo Lignum Vitae
Origin: Columbia and Venezuela
20 ft' title='Big tree > 20 ft' >

Vera Wood is an evergreen canopy tree cultivated for its buttery-yellow flowers and valuable hard and heavy timber. Introduced from Venezuela to South Florida by Dr. David Fairchild.

The legend goes that Chief Lignum Vitae had a daughter named Vera, which means Faithful or True. She lived along the Caribbean coast in what is now Colombia and Venezuela. Vera loved the outdoors and spent most of her time laughing and singing in the forests. Men who heard her singing fell in love with her, and came searching for. She hid in the forest, but they found her and pleaded with her to at least sing for them, even if she wouldn't consider marrying them. She obliged them by singing beautifully, and continues to sing right to this day.

Verawood typically gets to 40 feet or so, and makes a nice canopy tree. Drought tolerant once established. Needs good drainage, tolerates poor soils.

3271 Bulnesia arborea - Verawood

Verawood. Beautiful large specimen tree with bright golden-yellow to orange flowers. Drought tolerant once established. Needs good drainage, but tolerates poor soils. Great shade tree.
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This item is certified for shipping to California.

Most of our plants are certified for shipping to California, however, certain plants are not certified. Please do not order not-certified plants to California addresses. These plants may be added to CA certification in the future please contact us for more information.

An evergreen tree with a twisted trunk, opposite oval compound leaves and showy bright blue flowers. Lignum vitae can be grown in full sun or partial shade on a wide variety of soils, including alkaline. Plants will easily tolerate wet or dry soil, wind, and salt, making it an ideal choice especially for seaside plantings.

Some of the resins active ingredients are effective anti inflammatory agents.

Similar to Guaiacum sanctum, but flowers are brighter and bigger.

3024 Guaiacum officinale - Lignum vitae

Lignum vitae. An evergreen tree with a twisted trunk, opposite oval compound leaves and showy bright blue flowers. Lignum vitae can be grown in full sun or partial shade on a wide variety of soils, including alkaline. Plants will easily tolerate wet or dry soil, wind, and salt, making it an ideal choice especially for seaside plantings. Some of the resins active ingredients are effective anti inflammatory agents. Close related to Guaiacum sanctum, but flowers are brighter. This item is certified for shipping to California.

Most of our plants are certified for shipping to California, however, certain plants are not certified. Please do not order not-certified plants to California addresses. These plants may be added to CA certification in the future please contact us for more information.


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Guaiacum sanctum
Family: Zygophyllaceae
Lignum Vitae, Tree of Life, Gaiac tree
Origin: Antilles, Florida, Mexico to northern South America, West Indies

This small tree, native to the Antilles, is characteristic of xerophilous regions. This tree is sometimes referred to as the "tree of life" because of its many uses. Its wood, once commercially used in construction because of its density, was so exploited that the Gaiac, as it is locally called, is now a protected species. The bark of the Gaiac tree was used in times past for medicinal purposes. Its sap was also attributed with the power to relieve arthritis. Its glossy leaves are a rich green and in general, this tree flowers twice a year. Its abundant flowers range in color from purple to blue and pale over time. Its red-orange-colored fruit is about 1" in diameter. Lignum vitae is a great medium for carvings. Lignum vitae wood was used in the past to make ball bearings because its extremely high resin content makes it self-lubricating. Another place that Lignum vitae were used was in United States courtrooms, where the judge's gavel was traditionally made from this fine wood. Watering Needs: Moderate water, needs good drainage, somewhat drought resistant. The blue flower is the national flower of Jamaica.

2681 Guaiacum sanctum - Lignum Vitae

Lignum Vitae, Tree of Life, Gaiac tree. This tree is sometimes referred to as the "tree of life" because of its many uses. Abundant flowers range in color from purple to blue, it is the national flower of Jamaica. Rare and slow growing small tree, hard to propagate. This item is certified for shipping to California.

Most of our plants are certified for shipping to California, however, certain plants are not certified. Please do not order not-certified plants to California addresses. These plants may be added to CA certification in the future please contact us for more information.


Zygophyllaceae

Zygophyllaceae, or the bean caper family, is a loose-knit assemblage of 22 genera and 285 species that mainly grow in the desert or saline environments of temperate and tropical regions. Most members are shrubs to small trees, often resinous, with opposite or spirally arranged leaves. The five-parted flowers typically have 10 anthers, each with a gland, and a well-developed nectary disk. Fruits are commonly capsules or schizocarps.

Zygophyllum (about 100 species), the largest genus in the family, is found from northern and southern Africa to Central Asia, India, and Australia. Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), of the genus Larrea (five species), dominates much of the deserts of southwestern North America. The other species in the genus occur in arid areas of Argentina. Fagonia (30–40 species) is widespread, occurring in the warm deserts of North and South America, the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean region, southwestern Africa, and southwestern Asia to northwestern India. Balanites (25 species) is found from tropical Africa to Myanmar (Burma) in Africa the undigested seeds of Balanites wilsoniana are dispersed by elephants in their dung.

Within the family Zygophyllaceae are several valuable New World timber trees. The most famous of these is Guaiacum officinale ( lignum vitae), a Neotropical tree with very hard, dense, and durable wood. It is used in making the bushings for ships’ screws and for mallets. The wood contains gum guaiac, a resin that has been used medicinally since the 15th century as a specific, but ineffective, cure for syphilis. The guaiac test is still used, however, to detect blood in feces. The wood of Guaiacum sanctum (holywood, also known as lignum vitae), from the northern Caribbean and Central America, is used for making small objects that require weight, hardness, and strength. Bulnesia arborea (verawood, or Maracaibo lignum vitae) is utilized for the same purpose in Colombia and Venezuela. The wood of B. sarmientoi (Paraguay lignum vitae) is the source of guaiac wood oil, which has a roselike scent and is used in soaps and perfumes.

A few species of Zygophyllaceae are edible. The fruits of several African species of Balanites are sometimes eaten, and their seeds produce oils used in cooking or soap manufacture. The pickled buds of the North African Zygophyllum fabago (bean caper) are used as a substitute for capers. Some species of other genera are weedy, but the most pernicious of these is Tribulus terrestris ( puncture vine). This native of the Mediterranean region has been disseminated to all the drier warm areas of the world. It has hard fruits with sharp spines that easily attach to automobile and airplane tires and to the feet of grazing animals. The spines can injure an animal externally if touched or internally if eaten. Livestock that eat the plant may become very sensitive to light ingestion of the fruits may cause death in these animals.

In Kallstroemia the petals and stamens spread horizontally from the pistil when the flower opens in the morning. The stigma is receptive to pollen carried in by insects (bees, wasps, butterflies, and flies) visiting the open flower for its nectar. By early afternoon the flowers begin to close, and the petals and stamens bend back upward, causing appression of the stamens, and what pollen they may still contain is placed onto the stigma, effecting self-pollination. This is a remarkable instance in which seed formation is ensured by self-pollination if necessary, but cross-pollination is first attempted. This is an important adaptation in a genus of plants growing in arid areas where their pollinators might not be present or abundant.


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Comments:

  1. Voodooramar

    It happens. Let's discuss this issue. Here or at PM.

  2. Zukinos

    I was now curious, and the blog author himself reads the comments on this post. Or are we writing for ourselves here?

  3. Huntington

    Between us, I would ask the moderator for help.

  4. Duzil

    Is there something similar?



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